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PLoS One. 2015 Aug 14;10(8):e0135816. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135816. eCollection 2015.

Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

Author information

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Centro de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Fundação Estadual de Produção e Pesquisa em Saúde, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
2
Centro de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Fundação Estadual de Produção e Pesquisa em Saúde, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
3
Setor de Hepatites Virais, Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, Chapecó, Brazil.
4
Laboratório de Virologia Molecular, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
5
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Aplicada à Saúde, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, Brazil.
6
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Centro de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Fundação Estadual de Produção e Pesquisa em Saúde, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Aplicada à Saúde, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, Brazil.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

PMID:
26275046
PMCID:
PMC4537142
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0135816
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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