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Mov Disord. 2015 Sep 15;30(11):1504-20. doi: 10.1002/mds.26363. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Nonpharmacological treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease.

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Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Movement Disorders Clinic, Beelitz-Heilstätten, Germany.


Since 2013, a number of studies have enhanced the literature and have guided clinicians on viable treatment interventions outside of pharmacotherapy and surgery. Thirty-three randomized controlled trials and one large observational study on exercise and physiotherapy were published in this period. Four randomized controlled trials focused on dance interventions, eight on treatment of cognition and behavior, two on occupational therapy, and two on speech and language therapy (the latter two specifically addressed dysphagia). Three randomized controlled trials focused on multidisciplinary care models, one study on telemedicine, and four studies on alternative interventions, including music therapy and mindfulness. These studies attest to the marked interest in these therapeutic approaches and the increasing evidence base that places nonpharmacological treatments firmly within the integrated repertoire of treatment options in Parkinson's disease.


Parkinson's disease; cognitive therapy; exercise; multidisciplinary care; occupational therapy; physiotherapy; speech and language therapy

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