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Cardiol Rev. 2016 Jan-Feb;24(1):19-25. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000084.

Treatment Options in Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism.

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From the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.


Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cardiovascular condition that represents a spectrum of disorders with a gradient of increased risk of adverse outcomes. The U.S. Surgeon General estimated that approximately 100,000 to 180,000 PE-related deaths occur in the United States annually, and that PE is the most preventable cause of death among hospitalized patients. Risk stratification is critical to identify the patients who may benefit from advanced therapy. This review will provide an overview of PE pathophysiology, evidence-based risk stratification strategies for patients with acute PE, a summary of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant options, and an in-depth discussion on the utilization of advanced therapeutic options, including systemic fibrinolysis, catheter-based pharmacomechanical therapy, and surgical embolectomy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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