Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Chemotherapy (Los Angel). 2015 Jun;4(2). pii: 152.

Evidence that Human Prostate Cancer is a ZIP1-Deficient Malignancy that could be Effectively Treated with a Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Approach.

Author information

1
Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences; Dental School; and The Greenebaum Cancer Center; University of Maryland; Baltimore, USA.
2
Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences; Dental School; University of Maryland; Baltimore, USA.
3
Division of Urology, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Baltimore, USA.

Abstract

Despite decades of research, no efficacious chemotherapy exists for the treatment of prostate cancer. Malignant prostate zinc levels are markedly decreased in all cases of prostate cancer compared to normal/benign prostate. ZIP1 zinc transporter down regulation decreases zinc to prevent its cytotoxic effects. Thus, prostate cancer is a "ZIP1-deficient" malignancy. A zinc ionophore (e.g. Clioquinol) treatment to increase malignant zinc levels is a plausible treatment of prostate cancer. However, skepticism within the clinical/biomedical research community impedes significant progress leading to such a zinc treatment. This report reviews the clinical and experimental background, and presents new experimental data showing Clioquinol suppression of prostate malignancy; which provides strong support for a zinc ionophore treatment for prostate cancer. Evaluation of often-raised opposing issues is presented. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the compelling evidence dictates that a zinc-treatment approach for prostate cancer should be pursued with additional research leading to clinical trials.

KEYWORDS:

Chemotherapy; Clioquinol; Prostate cancer; ZIP1 transporter; ZIP1-deficent malignancy; Zinc; Zinc ionophore

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center