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Genome Med. 2015 Jun 28;7:63. doi: 10.1186/s13073-015-0179-6. eCollection 2015.

Mechanistic insights revealed by lipid profiling in monogenic insulin resistance syndromes.

Author information

1
MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, 120 Fulbourn Road, Cambridge, CB1 9NL UK.
2
Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
3
MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, 120 Fulbourn Road, Cambridge, CB1 9NL UK ; Department of Biochemistry and the Cambridge Systems Biology Centre, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK.
4
Department of Biochemistry and the Cambridge Systems Biology Centre, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence from several recent metabolomic studies suggests that increased concentrations of triacylglycerols with shorter (14-16 carbon atoms), saturated fatty acids are associated with insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Although causality cannot be inferred from association studies, patients in whom the primary cause of insulin resistance can be genetically defined offer unique opportunities to address this challenge.

METHODS:

We compared metabolite profiles in patients with congenital lipodystrophy or loss-of-function insulin resistance (INSR gene) mutations with healthy controls.

RESULTS:

The absence of significant differences in triacylglycerol species in the INSR group suggest that changes previously observed in epidemiological studies are not purely a consequence of insulin resistance. The presence of triacylglycerols with lower carbon numbers and high saturation in patients with lipodystrophy suggests that these metabolite changes may be associated with primary adipose tissue dysfunction. The observed pattern of triacylglycerol species is indicative of increased de novo lipogenesis in the liver. To test this we investigated the distribution of these triacylglycerols in lipoprotein fractions using size exclusion chromatography prior to mass spectrometry. This associated these triacylglycerols with very low-density lipoprotein particles, and hence release of triacylglycerols into the blood from the liver. To test further the hepatic origin of these triacylglycerols we induced de novo lipogenesis in the mouse, comparing ob/ob and wild-type mice on a chow or high fat diet, confirming that de novo lipogenesis induced an increase in relatively shorter, more saturated fatty acids.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, these studies highlight hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the pathogenesis of metabolic dyslipidaemia in states where energy intake exceeds the capacity of adipose tissue.

PMID:
26273324
PMCID:
PMC4535665
DOI:
10.1186/s13073-015-0179-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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