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Stem Cells Int. 2015;2015:628767. doi: 10.1155/2015/628767. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells: When, Where, and How.

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Skeletal Research Center, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have profound medicinal effects at body sites of tissue injury, disease, or inflammation as either endogenously or exogenously supplied. The medicinal effects are either immunomodulatory or trophic or both. When to deliver these mediators of regeneration, where, and by what delivery apparatus or mechanism will directly determine their medical efficacy. The MSCs help manage the innate regenerative capacity of almost every body tissue and the MSCs have only recently been fully appreciated. Perhaps the most skilled physician-manager of the body's innate regenerative capacity is in orthopedics where the vigorous regeneration and repair capacity of bone through local MSCs-titers is expertly managed by the orthopaedic physician. The challenge is to extend MSCs expertise to address other tissue dysfunctions and diseases. The medicine of tomorrow will encompass optimizing the tissues' intrinsic regenerative potential through management of local MSCs.

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