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Braz J Microbiol. 2015 Jun 1;46(2):551-5. doi: 10.1590/S1517-838246246220140110. eCollection 2015 Jun.

The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs.

Author information

1
Universidade Paulista, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
3
Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.

KEYWORDS:

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Brazilian Atlantic Forest; PCR; chytridiomycosis; frogs

PMID:
26273273
PMCID:
PMC4507550
DOI:
10.1590/S1517-838246246220140110
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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