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Science. 2015 Oct 2;350(6256):64-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5891. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager.

Author information

1
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040, USA. bmacintosh@stanford.edu.
2
Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
3
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
4
Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
5
NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA.
6
National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada.
7
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
8
Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
9
School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Post Office Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
10
Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada.
11
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Post Office Box 1663, MS F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.
12
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040, USA.
13
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
14
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.
15
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada.
16
School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Post Office Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA.
17
NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK.
18
Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
19
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4, Canada.
20
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2, Canada. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada.
21
Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38000 Grenoble, France.
22
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
23
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
24
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
25
Department of Physics, Durham University, Stockton Road, Durham DH1, UK. Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile.
26
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3600 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.
27
Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile.
28
University of Exeter, Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK.
29
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
30
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
31
Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.
32
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA.
33
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4, Canada.
34
Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
35
Department of Physics, University of California-Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530, USA.
36
Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.
37
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA.
38
Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.
39
Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Casilla 36-D, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.
40
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.
41
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2825 East Avenue P, Palmdale, CA 93550, USA. Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile.
42
National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada.
43
Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
44
Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606, USA.
45
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.

Abstract

Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10(-6) and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, "hot-start" formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the "cold-start" core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

PMID:
26272904
DOI:
10.1126/science.aac5891
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