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Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2015 Nov;35(6):652-62. doi: 10.1111/opo.12239. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Both the central and peripheral retina contribute to myopia development in chicks.

Wang JC1,2, Chun RK2, Zhou YY2,3, Zuo B2, Li KK2, Liu Q1,2, To CH1,2.

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State key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Laboratory of Experimental Optometry, Centre for Myopia Research, School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.



This study examined the contribution of the central and peripheral retina to the development of form deprivation myopia in chicks.


Chicks were treated for 7 days either with centrally form-deprived (CFD) lenses of 2/4/6/8 mm diameter central diffuse zone, or a full size diffuser lens on their right eyes. The left eyes wore a full field plano lens. Axial dimensions and refractions were measured before and after 4 and 7 days of lens wear.


All eyes that had worn CFD lenses of 2/4/6/8 mm had significant changes in refractive errors (from -2.69 ± 0.40 D to -6.13 ± 0.76 D, p < 0.05), vitreous chamber depth (from 0.19 ± 0.04 mm to 0.56 ± 0.04 mm, p < 0.05) and axial length (from 0.42 ± 0.03 mm to 0.96 ± 0.04 mm, p < 0.05) during the experiment, except for the changes in refractive error (-2.81 ± 0.33 D, p = 0.053) and axial length (0.77 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.050) in the 2 mm lens group after 7 days of lens wear. The myopic shift in the CFD lens wearing eyes was due primarily to an increase in vitreous chamber depth. Linear regression analysis showed that the changes of refractive error, vitreous chamber depth and axial length were positively correlated with the size of central form-deprived retina. Form depriving the central retina produced axial myopia even in the presence of clear peripheral vision.


The current study showed that both the central and peripheral retina contributes to myopia development in chicks. The amount of myopia induced increased linearly with the area of retina being form-deprived. It suggests that in terms of decoding optical input for growth, the area of retina being exposed to optical signals may be critical in determining eye growth.


central retina; chick; emmetropisation; form deprivation myopia; periphery

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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