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Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016 Apr;19(2):307-16. doi: 10.1007/s00737-015-0553-9. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Development of the Perinatal Depression Inventory (PDI)-14 using item response theory: a comparison of the BDI-II, EPDS, PDI, and PHQ-9.

Author information

1
TeleSage, Inc., 201 E. Rosemary St., Chapel Hill, NC, 27510, USA. bb@telesage.com.
2
Emory University, PAIS Building, 36 Eagle Row, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.
3
SAS Institute Inc., 100 SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC, 27513-2414, USA.
4
Mental Health Partners, 1333 Iris Ave., Boulder, CO, 80304-2226, USA.
5
NetSmart Technologies, Inc., 4950 College Boulevard, Overland Park, KS, 66211, USA.
6
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Greenlaw 211, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.
7
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa, 4444 E. 41st Street, Tulsa, OK, 74135, USA.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to develop a simple, brief, self-report perinatal depression inventory that accurately measures severity in a number of populations. Our team developed 159 Likert-scale perinatal depression items using simple sentences with a fifth-grade reading level. Based on iterative cognitive interviewing (CI), an expert panel improved and winnowed the item pool based on pre-determined criteria. The resulting 67 items were administered to a sample of 628 pregnant and 251 postpartum women with different levels of depression at private and public sector obstetrics clinics, together with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), as well as Module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnoses (SCID). Responses were evaluated using Item Response Theory (IRT). The Perinatal Depression Inventory (PDI)-14 items are highly informative regarding depression severity and function similarly and informatively across pregnant/postpartum, white/non-white, and private-clinic/public-clinic populations. PDI-14 scores correlate well with the PHQ-9, EPDS, and BDI-II, but the PDI-14 provides a more precise measure of severity using far fewer words. The PDI-14 is a brief depression assessment that excels at accurately measuring depression severity across a wide range of severity and perinatal populations.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; IRT; PDI-14; Perinatal; Postpartum

PMID:
26271280
PMCID:
PMC4799794
DOI:
10.1007/s00737-015-0553-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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