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Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016 Apr;19(2):299-305. doi: 10.1007/s00737-015-0566-4. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Postpartum depression among visible and invisible sexual minority women: a pilot study.

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Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Health Systems and Health Equity Research, 33 Russell St., T421, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada.
Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor St. W, Toronto, ON, M5S 1V4, Canada.
Department of Psychology, Clark University, 950 Main St, Worcester, MA, 01610, USA.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Health Systems and Health Equity Research, 33 Russell St., T421, Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada.



Significant numbers of sexual minority women are choosing to parent. Despite this, there is limited research on postpartum depression (PPD) with sexual minority mothers and less research considering differences within sexual minority women in the experience of PPD. This research examines two questions to address this gap in research: (1) Do experiences of PPD symptoms vary between different subgroups of sexual minority women, and (2) Which recruitment strategies effectively address the challenge of recruiting sexual minority women who are pregnant?


Two Canadian studies recruited participants via consecutive or convenience sampling from midwifery clinics and hospital sites. Participants completed prenatal and postnatal measures of PPD symptoms, social support, and perceived discrimination.


Considering our first question, we found an interaction effect between past sexual behavior and current partner gender. Women currently partnered with men reported higher scores on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale when their sexual history included partners of more than one gender, whereas this effect was not found among women who were currently partnered with women or not partnered. Regarding our second question, most sexual minority participants recruited through convenience sampling were partnered with women and identified as lesbian or queer, while most participants recruited through consecutive sampling were partnered with men and identified as bisexual.


Women whose sexual histories include more than one gender and are currently partnered with men may be at a higher risk for PPD symptoms. Recruitment method may influence the type of sample recruited for perinatal mental health research among sexual minority women.


Bisexual; Consecutive sampling; Lesbian; Postpartum depression; Sexual minority

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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