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Res Microbiol. 1989 Nov-Dec;140(9):679-93.

Azospirillum irakense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with rice roots and rhizosphere soil.

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Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Institut National Agronomique, Paris.


A new species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Azospirillum irakense, was found associated with roots and the rhizosphere of rice in the region of Diwaniyah (Qadisya), Iraq. The seven isolates, on which the species description is based, have vibrioid to S-shaped cells with one polar flagellum in liquid medium. Additional lateral flagella are seen on cells grown on nutrient agar. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are present in cells. Nitrogen fixation occurs in microaerobic conditions. The phenotypic characters were found to be very close to those of A. amazonense with the following differences: growth occurred in the presence of 3% NaCl, and at pH 5.5 and 8.5, myo-inositol was not utilized as sole source of carbon and energy and pectin was slowly (6 to 9 days) hydrolysed. The seven studied strains formed a DNA-relatedness group distinct from other Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum species. The G + C content of the DNA was 64 to 67 mol %. The type strain is KBC1 (CIP 103311).

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