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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2015 Dec;93:249-260. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.019. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

A hairy case: The evolution of filtering carnivorous Drusinae (Limnephilidae, Trichoptera).

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Department of Limnology and Oceanography, University of Vienna, Austria.
Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecology Management, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
Tarján u. 28, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary.
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt a.M., Germany.
Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Contributed equally


The caddisfly subfamily Drusinae BANKS comprises roughly 100 species inhabiting mountain ranges in Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. A 3-gene phylogeny of the subfamily previously identified three major clades that were corroborated by larval morphology and feeding ecologies: scraping grazers, omnivorous shredders and filtering carnivores. Larvae of filtering carnivores exhibit unique head capsule complexities, unknown from other caddisfly larvae. Here we assess the species-level relationships within filtering carnivores, hypothesizing that head capsule complexity is derived from simple shapes observed in the other feeding groups. We summarize the current systematics and taxonomy of the group, clarify the systematic position of Cryptothrix nebulicola, and present a larval key to filtering carnivorous Drusinae. We infer relationships of all known filtering carnivorous Drusinae and 34 additional Drusinae species using Bayesian species tree analysis and concatenated Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 3805bp of sequence data from six gene regions (mtCOI5-P, mtCOI3-P, 16S mrDNA, CADH, WG, 28S nrDNA), morphological cladistics from 308 characters, and a total evidence analysis. All analyses support monophyly of the three feeding ecology groups but fail to fully resolve internal relationships. Within filtering carnivores, variation in head setation and frontoclypeus structure may be associated with progressive niche adaptation, with less complex species recovered at a basal position. We propose that diversification of complex setation and frontoclypeus shape represents a recent evolutionary development, hypothetically enforcing speciation and niche specificity within filtering carnivorous Drusinae.


(∗)BEAST; Filter-feeding; Larval key; Phylogeny; Species tree

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