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J Sports Sci. 2016;34(10):906-14. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1076572. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Improved determination of dynamic balance using the centre of mass and centre of pressure inclination variables in a complete golf swing cycle.

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a Department of Bio-Mechatronic Engineering , College of Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon , Republic of Korea.


Golf requires proper dynamic balance to accurately control the club head through a harmonious coordination of each human segment and joint. In this study, we evaluated the ability for dynamic balance during a golf swing by using the centre of mass (COM)-centre of pressure (COP) inclination variables. Twelve professional, 13 amateur and 10 novice golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras, two force platforms and SB-Clinic software were used to measure the net COM and COP trajectories. In order to evaluate dynamic balance ability, the COM-COP inclination angle, COM-COP inclination angular velocity and normalised COM-COP inclination angular jerk were used. Professional golfer group revealed a smaller COM-COP inclination angle and angular velocity than novice golfer group in the lead/trail direction (P < 0.01). In the normalised COM-COP inclination angular jerk, the professional golfer group showed a lower value than the other two groups in all directions. Professional golfers tend to exhibit improved dynamic balance, and this can be attributed to the neuromusculoskeletal system that maintains balance with proper postural control. This study has the potential to allow for an evaluation of the dynamic balance mechanism and will provide useful basic information for swing training and prevention of golf injuries.


Golf; balance; centre of mass; centre of pressure; smoothness

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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