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Virchows Arch. 2015 Dec;467(6):623-633. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Chronic inflammation in urothelial bladder cancer.

Author information

1
Division of Pathological Anatomy, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134, Florence, Italy. gabriella.nesi@unifi.it.
2
Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Oncology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy.
3
Department of Urology, Santa Chiara Regional Hospital, Largo Medaglie d'Oro 9, 50011, Trento, Italy.
4
Unit of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Prevention (ISPO), Via delle Oblate 2, 50139, Florence, Italy.
5
Division of Pathological Anatomy, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134, Florence, Italy.

Abstract

The association between inflammation and cancer has been pointed out in epidemiological and clinical studies, revealing how chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis in various malignancies. However, the molecular events leading to malignant transformation in a chronically inflamed environment are not fully understood. In urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, inflammation plays a dual role. On the one hand, chronic inflammation is a well-established risk factor for the development of bladder cancer (BC), as seen in Schistosoma haematobium infection. On the other, intravesical therapy by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which induces inflammation, offers protection against cancer recurrence. The large variety of pro-inflammatory mediators expressed by BC and immune cells binds to specific receptors which control signalling pathways. These activate transcription of a plethora of downstream factors. This review summarizes recent data regarding inflammation and urothelial carcinoma, with special emphasis on the role the inflammatory response plays in BC recurrence risk and progression.

KEYWORDS:

Carcinogenesis; Inflammation; Molecular pathology; Urothelial carcinoma

PMID:
26263854
DOI:
10.1007/s00428-015-1820-x

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