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Front Immunol. 2015 Jul 20;6:367. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00367. eCollection 2015.

Polarizing T and B Cell Responses by APC-Targeted Subunit Vaccines.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Medicine, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Influenza Vaccine Research (JIV), Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway.
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Influenza Vaccine Research (JIV), Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway ; Centre for Immune Regulation (CIR), Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway.

Abstract

Current influenza vaccines mostly aim at the induction of specific neutralizing antibodies. While antibodies are important for protection against a particular virus strain, T cells can recognize epitopes that will offer broader protection against influenza. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine format by which protein antigens can be targeted specifically to receptors on antigen presenting cells (APCs). The DNA-encoded vaccine proteins are homodimers, each chain consisting of a targeting unit, a dimerization unit, and an antigen. The strategy of targeting antigen to APCs greatly enhances immune responses as compared to non-targeted controls. Furthermore, targeting of antigen to different receptors on APCs can polarize the immune response to different arms of immunity. Here, we discuss how targeting of hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules increases Th2 and IgG1 antibody responses, whereas targeting to chemokine receptors XCR1 or CCR1/3/5 increases Th1 and IgG2a responses, in addition to CD8(+) T cell responses. We also discuss these results in relation to work published by others on APC-targeting. Differential targeting of APC surface molecules may allow the induction of tailor-made phenotypes of adaptive immune responses that are optimal for protection against various infectious agents, including influenza virus.

KEYWORDS:

APC targeting; T cells; Th1; Th2; antibody; influenza vaccines; vaccine

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