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Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2015 Aug;9 Suppl 1:3-12. doi: 10.1111/irv.12319.

Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study.

Author information

1
Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Wellington, New Zealand.
3
Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
4
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Dr. Emilio Coni, Santa Fe, Argentina.
5
Department of Health and Ageing, Influenza Surveillance Section, Surveillance Branch, Office of Health Protection, Woden, ACT, Australia.
6
Public Health Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Thimphu, Bhutan.
7
Ministry of Health, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
8
Service de Virologie, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon.
9
Sección de Virus Respiratorios y Exantemáticos, Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile.
10
Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
11
Respiratory Virus Unit, Public Health England, Colindale, UK.
12
US Centers for Disease Control, Central American Region, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
13
US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia.
14
National Influenza Center, Istituto Superiore Sanità, Rome, Italy.
15
Respiratory Viruses Unit, Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
16
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya.
17
National Influenza Center, Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
18
Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Singapore.
19
Global Disease Detection, US-CDC, Pretoria, South Africa.
20
Zoonoses Research Unit, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
21
L.V.Gromashevsky Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
22
Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
23
National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
24
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000.

METHODS:

Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5) and Northern (n = 7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n = 14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type.

RESULTS:

The database included 935 673 influenza cases (2000-2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 22·6%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in ≈25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5-17 years) than patients infected with influenza A.

CONCLUSION:

Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza.

KEYWORDS:

Burden of disease; Global Influenza B Study (GIBS); epidemiology; influenza; vaccination; vaccine mismatch

PMID:
26256290
PMCID:
PMC4549097
DOI:
10.1111/irv.12319
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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