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Carbohydr Polym. 2015 Oct 20;131:125-33. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.051. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Microwave-assisted carboxymethylation of cellulose extracted from brewer's spent grain.

Author information

1
Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Br 153, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, 3105, 75132-903 Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address: danilomartins_1@hotmail.com.
2
Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Br 153, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, 3105, 75132-903 Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address: andrea_bukzem@hotmail.com.
3
Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Br 153, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, 3105, 75132-903 Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address: ascheridpr@gmail.com.
4
Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Br 153, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, 3105, 75132-903 Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address: roberta.signini@ueg.br.
5
Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Br 153, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, 3105, 75132-903 Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address: gilbaqui@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Cellulose was extracted from brewer's spent grain (BSG) by alkaline and bleaching treatments. The extracted cellulose was used in the preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by reaction with monochloroacetic acid in alkaline medium with the use of a microwave reactor. A full-factorial 2(3) central composite design was applied in order to evaluate how parameters of carboxymethylation process such as reaction time, amount of monochloroacetic acid and reaction temperature affect the average degree of substitution (DS) of the cellulose derivative. An optimization strategy based on response surface methodology has been used for this process. The optimized conditions to yield CMC with the highest DS of 1.46 follow: 5g of monochloroacetic acid per gram of cellulose, reaction time of 7.5min and temperature of 70°C. This work demonstrated the feasibility of a fast and efficient microwave-assisted method to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose from cellulose isolated of brewer's spent grain.

KEYWORDS:

Agro-industrial residue; Brewer's spent grain; Carboxymethylation of cellulose; Microwave

PMID:
26256168
DOI:
10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.051
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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