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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Oct;1849(10):1260-76. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2015.08.001. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Changing gears in Nrf1 research, from mechanisms of regulation to its role in disease and prevention.

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Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6.
Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6; Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address:


The "cap'n'collar" bZIP transcription factor Nrf1 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins to bind to the Antioxidant Response Element/Electrophile Response Element to transactivate antioxidant enzyme, phase 2 detoxification enzyme and proteasome subunit gene expression. Nrf1 specifically regulates pathways in lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, proteasomal degradation, the citric acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Nrf1 is maintained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in an inactive glycosylated state. Activation involves retrotranslocation from the ER lumen to the cytoplasm, deglycosylation and partial proteolytic processing to generate the active forms of Nrf1. Recent evidence has revealed how this factor is regulated and its involvement in various metabolic diseases. This review outlines Nrf1 structure, function, regulation and its links to insulin resistance, diabetes and inflammation. The glycosylation/deglycosylation of Nrf1 is controlled by glucose levels. Nrf1 glycosylation affects its control of glucose transport, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism.


Disease; Function; NFE2L1; Nrf1; Regulation; Structure

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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