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Account Res. 2016;23(2):123-35. doi: 10.1080/08989621.2015.1069713.

Noncompliance with Human Subjects' Protection Requirements as a Reason for Retracting Papers: Survey of Retraction Notices on Medical Papers Published from 1981 to 2011.

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a Department of Public Policy, The Institute of Medical Science , The University of Tokyo , Minato-ku , Tokyo , Japan.


Though protection of human research subjects is universally recognized as a critical requirement for the ethical conduct of research, few studies have examined retractions of medical articles through apparent noncompliance with that requirement. From our survey of 99 retracted papers published from 1981 to 2011, we found that the basis for those decisions was poorly explained in retraction notices and that most of the articles continued to be cited. In retraction notices, the current manner of explaining failure to protect human subjects is misleading and confusing.


Citation; ethical requirement; human subjects’ protection; retraction

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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