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Clin Nutr Res. 2015 Jul;4(3):137-52. doi: 10.7762/cnr.2015.4.3.137. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis).

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Department of Nephrology, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associate, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Harvard Vanguard Medical Associate, Clinical Instructor at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Tufts University Friedman School of Nutrition and School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.


The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones.


Calcium oxalate; Hypercalciuria; Hyperoxaluria; Nephrolithiasis; Prevention of kidney stone; Risk factors for kidney stones; Uric acid stone

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