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Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:848290. doi: 10.1155/2015/848290. Epub 2015 Jul 13.

Noninflammatory Joint Contractures Arising from Immobility: Animal Models to Future Treatments.

Author information

1
Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M5.
2
Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M5 ; Department of Medicine, Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, The Ottawa Hospital Rehabilitation Centre, 505 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M2.
3
Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M5 ; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5.

Abstract

Joint contractures, defined as the limitation in the passive range of motion of a mobile joint, can be classified as noninflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The pathophysiology is not well understood; limited information is available on causal factors, progression, the pathophysiology involved, and prediction of response to treatment. The clinical heterogeneity of joint contractures combined with the heterogeneous contribution of joint connective tissues to joint mobility presents challenges to the study of joint contractures. Furthermore, contractures are often a symptom of a wide variety of heterogeneous disorders that are in many cases multifactorial. Extended immobility has been identified as a causal factor and evidence is provided from both experimental and epidemiology studies. Of interest is the involvement of the joint capsule in the pathophysiology of joint contractures and lack of response to remobilization. While molecular pathways involved in the development of joint contractures are being investigated, current treatments focus on physiotherapy, which is ineffective on irreversible contractures. Future treatments may include early diagnosis and prevention.

PMID:
26247029
PMCID:
PMC4515492
DOI:
10.1155/2015/848290
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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