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Curr Pathobiol Rep. 2015;3(3):219-223.

Mouse Models as Predictors of Human Responses: Evolutionary Medicine.

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Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7388 USA.
Warner Consulting, P.O. Box 1185, Las Vegas, NM 87701 USA.


Mice offer a number of advantages and are extensively used to model human diseases and drug responses. Selective breeding and genetic manipulation of mice have made many different genotypes and phenotypes available for research. However, in many cases, mouse models have failed to be predictive. Important sources of the prediction problem have been the failure to consider the evolutionary basis for species differences, especially in drug metabolism, and disease definitions that do not reflect the complexity of gene expression underlying disease phenotypes. Incorporating evolutionary insights into mouse models allow for unique opportunities to characterize the effects of diet, different gene expression profiles, and microbiomics underlying human drug responses and disease phenotypes.


Disease definitions; Evolution; Mouse models

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