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Semin Immunopathol. 2015 Nov;37(6):577-90. doi: 10.1007/s00281-015-0516-2. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

Glial regulation of the blood-brain barrier in health and disease.

Broux B1,2,3, Gowing E1,2, Prat A4,5.

Author information

1
Neuroimmunology Unit, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 900 Rue Saint Denis Street, Room R9.912, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H2X 0A9.
2
Department of Neuroscience, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
3
Hasselt University, Biomedical Research Institute and transnationale Universiteit Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Agoralaan, Building C, 3590, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
4
Neuroimmunology Unit, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 900 Rue Saint Denis Street, Room R9.912, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H2X 0A9. a.prat@umontreal.ca.
5
Department of Neuroscience, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. a.prat@umontreal.ca.

Abstract

The brain is the organ with the highest metabolic demand in the body. Therefore, it needs specialized vasculature to provide it with the necessary oxygen and nutrients, while protecting it against pathogens and toxins. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is very tightly regulated by specialized endothelial cells, two basement membranes, and astrocytic endfeet. The proximity of astrocytes to the vessel makes them perfect candidates to influence the function of the BBB. Moreover, other glial cells are also known to contribute to either BBB quiescence or breakdown. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on glial regulation of the BBB during development, in homeostatic conditions in the adult, and during neuroinflammatory responses.

KEYWORDS:

Astrocytes; Blood-brain barrier; Central nervous system; Development; Endothelial cells; Microglia; Multiple sclerosis; Neuroinflammation

PMID:
26245144
DOI:
10.1007/s00281-015-0516-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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