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J Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 1;213(3):403-6. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv407. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Serum Samples From Middle-aged Adults Vaccinated Annually with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Cross-neutralize Some Potential Pandemic Influenza Viruses.

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Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products.
Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.


We examined serum samples from adults ages 48-64 who received multiple seasonal influenza vaccines from 2004 to 2009 for cross-neutralizing antibodies to potential pandemic strains. Using pseudoviruses bearing various hemagglutinins (HA-pseudoviruses), we found serum neutralization titers (≥160) in 100% against A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), 53% against A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), 56% against the H3N2 variant A/Indiana/08/11 (H3N2v), 11% against A/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2), and 36% A/chicken/Hong Kong/SF4/01 (H6N1). None had titers >160 to A/Shanghai/2/13 (H7N9) or A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7). Thirty-six percent to 0% had neutralization titers to various H5N1 strains. Titers to H9, H6, and H5 HA-pseudoviruses correlated with each other, but not with H3N2v, suggesting group-specific cross-neutralization.


cross-neutralization; influenza vaccines; neutralizing antibodies; pandemic influenza; stem antibodies

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