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Biophys J. 1979 Jun;26(3):367-83.

Prediction of beta-turns.


An automated computer prediction of the chain reversal regions of globular proteins is described herein using bend frequencies and beta-turn conformational parameters (Pt) determined from 408 beta-turns in 29 proteins calculated from x-ray atomic coordinates. The probability of bend occurrence at residue i is pt = fi X fi+1 X fi+2 X fi+3 with the average bend probability less than Pt greater than = 0.55 X 10(-4). Tetrapeptides with pt greater than 0.75 X 10(-4) ( approximately to 1.5 X less than pt greater than) as well as less than Pt greater than 1.00 and less than Pa greater than less than less than Pt greater than greater than less than P beta greater than are selected by the computer as probable bends. Adjacent probable bends (i.e., 11-14, 12-15, 13-16) are compared pairwise by the computer, and the tetrapeptide with the higher pt value is predicted as a beta-turn. The percentage of bend and nonbend residues predicted correctly for 29 proteins by this computer algorithm is %t+nt = 70%, whereas 78% of the beta-turns were localized correctly within +/- 2 residues. The average beta-turn content in the 29 proteins is 32%, with helical proteins having fewer bends (17%) than beta-sheet proteins (41%). Three proteins having iron-sulfur clusters were found with the highest percentages of beta-turns: Chromatium high potential iron protein (65%), ferredoxin (57%), and rubredoxin (65%). Finally, the bend frequencies at all 12 positions from 457 beta-turns in 29 proteins (Chou and Fasman, 1977) were used to test the effectiveness of predicting bends using 2, 4, 8, and 12 residues as well as different cut-off pt values. The computer analysis showed that 1.25 less than pt greater than to be the best cut-off yielding 70% accuracy in %t+nt for 4 residues and %t+nt = 73% for 12 residues in predicting the bend and nonbend regions of proteins.

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