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PLoS One. 2015 Aug 4;10(8):e0134804. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134804. eCollection 2015.

How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

Author information

1
Medical Psychological Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China; School of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan, 411201, China.
2
Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States of America.
3
Medical Psychological Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression.

DESIGN:

A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

METHOD:

Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants' ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators.

RESULTS:

Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges' g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges' g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges' g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013).

CONCLUSION:

Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings.

PMID:
26241879
PMCID:
PMC4524727
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0134804
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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