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Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 4;6:7869. doi: 10.1038/ncomms8869.

Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

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1] Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK [2] Department of Symbiosis, Max-Planck-Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen 28359, Germany.
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK.
Bruker Daltonik GmbH, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK.
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, UK.


All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide.

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