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Neuropharmacology. 2015 Dec;99:301-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.07.037. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Antidepressant-like effects of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in forced swim test: Role of activity at NMDA receptor.

Author information

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland; Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland.
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
4
Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: nfpopik@cyf-kr.edu.pl.

Abstract

Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in patients. The involvement of ketamine metabolites in these actions has been proposed. The effects of ketamine and its metabolites norketamine and dehydronorketamine on ligand binding to 80 receptors, ion channels and transporters was investigated at a single concentration of 10 μM. The affinities of all three compounds were then assessed at NMDA receptors using [3H]MK-801 binding. The dose-response relationships of all 3 compounds in the forced swim test were also investigated in mice 30 min after IP administration. The effects of ketamine and norketamine (both 50 mg/kg) were then examined at 30 min, 3 days and 7 days post administration. Among the 80 potential targets examined, only NMDA receptors were affected with a magnitude of >50% by ketamine and norketamine at the concentration of 10 μM. The Ki values of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine at NMDA receptors were 0.119±0.01, 0.97±0.1 and 3.21±0.3 μM, respectively. Ketamine and norketamine reduced immobility with minimum effective doses (MEDs) of 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively; dehydronorketamine did not affect immobility at doses of up to 50 mg/kg. Neither ketamine nor norketamine reduced immobility in the forced swim test 3 and 7 days following administration. Further, oral administration of ketamine (5-50 mg/kg) did not affect immobility. We demonstrate that ketamine and norketamine but not dehydronorketamine given acutely at subanesthetic doses reduced immobility in the forced swim test. These antidepressant-like effects appear attributable to NMDA receptor inhibition.

KEYWORDS:

Antidepressant-like effects; Dehydronorketamine; Ketamine; Ketamine metabolites; NMDA receptor; Norketamine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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