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Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Apr;20(3):477-83. doi: 10.1007/s00784-015-1537-x. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by e-cigarette fluids in human gingival fibroblasts.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, G. d'Annunzio University, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100, Chieti Scalo (CH), Italy.
2
Department of Pharmacy, G. d'Annunzio University, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100, Chieti Scalo (CH), Italy. marialucia.gallorini@unich.it.
3
Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. marialucia.gallorini@unich.it.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally acknowledged as a safer alternative to the use of combusted tobacco products. Nevertheless, there are increasing conflicting claims concerning the effect of these novel industrial products on the health of e-cigarettes users. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the liquids of e-cigarettes on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and to compare the effects of nicotine-containing fluid to the fluid itself.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

HGFs were treated with different concentrations (0-5 mg/mL) of fluids of e-cigarettes for different times (0-72 h) and cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay. Fluids were administered also after being vaped (e.g., warmed into the cartomizer). Apoptosis occurrence and Bax expression were evaluated by flow cytometry; ROS production was analyzed by fluorescence optical microscopy.

RESULTS:

Both nicotine-containing and nicotine-free fluids induced an increased ROS production after 24 h, along with an increased Bax expression, followed by apoptosis occurrence after 48 h of exposure.

CONCLUSIONS:

The cytotoxicity exerted on HGFs by e-cigarettes fluids is not entirely ascribable to nicotine. Since the e-cigarettes are advertised as a safer alternative to traditional ones, especially for the possibility of "smoking" nicotine-free fluids, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism involved in the occurrence of cytotoxicity exerted by such compounds.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

Our results suggest a role for e-cigarette fluids in the pathogenesis of oral diseases, such as periodontitis.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Bax; Cytotoxicity; Human gingival fibroblast; Reactive oxygen species; e-cigarette

PMID:
26239821
DOI:
10.1007/s00784-015-1537-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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