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Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;78(5):E15-27. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

An Overview of Translationally Informed Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Animal Models of Pavlovian Fear Conditioning to Human Clinical Trials.

Author information

1
Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: kressle@emory.edu.

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder manifests after exposure to a traumatic event and is characterized by avoidance/numbing, intrusive symptoms and flashbacks, mood and cognitive disruptions, and hyperarousal/reactivity symptoms. These symptoms reflect dysregulation of the fear system likely caused by poor fear inhibition/extinction, increased generalization, and/or enhanced consolidation or acquisition of fear. These phenotypes can be modeled in animal subjects using Pavlovian fear conditioning, allowing investigation of the underlying neurobiology of normative and pathological fear. Preclinical studies reveal a number of neurotransmitter systems and circuits critical for aversive learning and memory that have informed the development of therapies used in human clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a number of established and emerging pharmacotherapies and device-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder that have been developed via a bench to bedside translational model.

KEYWORDS:

Antidepressant; Cannabinoid; D-Cycloserine; Exposure; Extinction; Fear; Glucocorticoid; Hydrocortisone; Morphine; Opioid; Propranolol

PMID:
26238379
PMCID:
PMC4527085
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.06.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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