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Oper Dent. 2015 Nov-Dec;40(6):662-72. doi: 10.2341/14-244-L. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Effect of High Irradiance on Depth of Cure of a Conventional and a Bulk Fill Resin-based Composite.



This study evaluated the effect of using three commercial light curing units (LCUs) delivering a range of irradiance values, but delivering similar radiant exposures on the depth of cure of two different resin-based composites (RBCs).


A conventional hybrid RBC (Z100 shade A2, 3M ESPE) or a bulk fill RBC (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill shade IVA, Ivoclar Vivadent) was packed into a 10-mm deep semicircular metal mold with a 2-mm internal radius. The RBC was exposed to light from a plasma-arc-curing (PAC) light (Sapphire Plus, DenMat) for five seconds, a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light (Optilux 501, Kerr) for 40 seconds, or a light-emitting-diode (LED) light (S10, 3M ESPE) for 20 seconds and 40 seconds (control). The Knoop microhardness was then measured as soon as possible at the top surface and at three points every 0.5 mm down from the surface. For each RBC, a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) model was used to predict the Knoop hardness in a manner analogous to a standard regression model. This predicted value was used to determine at what depth the RBC reached 80% of the mean hardness achieved at the top surface with any light.


The PAC light delivered an irradiance and radiant exposure of 7328 mW/cm(2) and 36.6 J/cm(2), respectively, to the RBCs; the QTH light delivered 936 mW/cm(2) and 37.4 J/cm(2) and in 20 seconds the LED light delivered 1825 mW/cm(2) and 36.5 J/cm(2). In 40 seconds, the control LED light delivered a radiant exposure of 73.0 J/cm(2). For Z100, using 80% of the maximum hardness at the top surface as the criteria for adequate curing, all light exposure conditions achieved the 2.0-mm depth of cure claimed by the manufacturer. The LED light used for 40 seconds achieved the greatest depth of cure (5.0 mm), and the PAC light used for five seconds, the least (2.5 mm). Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill achieved a 3.5-mm depth of cure when the broad-spectrum QTH light was used for 40 seconds delivering 37.4 J/cm(2). It required a 40-second exposure time with the narrow-spectrum LED, delivering approximately 73 J/cm(2) to reach a depth of cure of 4 mm.


When delivering a similar radiant exposure of 37 J/cm(2), the QTH (40 seconds) and LED (20 seconds) units achieved a greater depth of cure than the PAC (five seconds) light. For both resins, the greatest depth of cure was achieved when the LED light was used for 40 seconds delivering 73 J/cm(2) (p<0.05).


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