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Adv Pharmacol. 2015;74:35-84. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2015.03.003. Epub 2015 May 27.

Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Cancer.

Author information

1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address: eugenehrycay@netscape.net.
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Abstract

This review examines the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems and discusses the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species and CYP enzymes in cancer. Reactive oxygen species are formed in biological systems as byproducts of the reduction of molecular oxygen and include the superoxide radical anion (∙O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (∙OH), hydroperoxyl radical (HOO∙), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and peroxyl radical (ROO∙). Two endogenous sources of reactive oxygen species are the mammalian CYP-dependent microsomal electron transport system and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. CYP enzymes catalyze the oxygenation of an organic substrate and the simultaneous reduction of molecular oxygen. If the transfer of oxygen to a substrate is not tightly controlled, uncoupling occurs and leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are capable of causing oxidative damage to cellular membranes and macromolecules that can lead to the development of human diseases such as cancer. In normal cells, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species are maintained in balance with intracellular biochemical antioxidants to prevent cellular damage. Oxidative stress occurs when this critical balance is disrupted. Topics covered in this review include the role of reactive oxygen species in intracellular cell signaling and the relationship between CYP enzymes and cancer. Outlines of CYP expression in neoplastic tissues, CYP enzyme polymorphism and cancer risk, CYP enzymes in cancer therapy and the metabolic activation of chemical procarcinogens by CYP enzymes are also provided.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidants; Cancer; Cytochrome P450; Microsomal electron transport; Mitochondrial electron transport; Oxidation of macromolecules; Reactive oxygen species

PMID:
26233903
DOI:
10.1016/bs.apha.2015.03.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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