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PLoS One. 2015 Jul 31;10(7):e0134375. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134375. eCollection 2015.

Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

Author information

1
Martin Lüscher Emerging Infectious Disease (ML-EID) Laboratory, International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Biosciences, University of Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Egerton University, P.O Box 536, Egerton, 20115, Kenya.
2
Martin Lüscher Emerging Infectious Disease (ML-EID) Laboratory, International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
3
Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Biosciences, University of Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa.
4
Invertebrates Zoology Section, Zoology Department, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Abstract

The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

PMID:
26230507
PMCID:
PMC4521840
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0134375
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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