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Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec;8(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

High-Definition and Non-invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD.

Author information

1
Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biological & Materials Sciences Department, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, USA; Department of Orthodontics & Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, USA.
2
Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biological & Materials Sciences Department, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
4
Soterix Medical, New York, NY, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, USA.
6
Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biological & Materials Sciences Department, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, USA; Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute (MBNI), University of Michigan, USA. Electronic address: adasilva@umich.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients.

OBJECTIVE:

To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2x2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo.

METHODS:

Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-min sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post-treatment.

RESULTS:

There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (P = 0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (P < 0.01); and sectional pain area, intensity and their sum measures contralateral to putative M1 stimulation during the treatment week (P < 0.01). No changes in emotional values were shown between groups.

CONCLUSION:

Putative M1 stimulation by HD-tDCS selectively improved meaningful clinical sensory-discriminative pain and motor measures during stimulation, and up to four-weeks post-treatment in chronic myofascial TMD pain patients.

KEYWORDS:

Clinical trial; Pain; PainTrek; Temporomandibular disorder; Transcranial direct current stimulation

PMID:
26226938
PMCID:
PMC4656049
DOI:
10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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