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Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep;102(3):582-92. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.112086. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Lean-seafood intake reduces cardiovascular lipid risk factors in healthy subjects: results from a randomized controlled trial with a crossover design.

Author information

1
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway;
2
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway;
3
Hormone Laboratory, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; and.
4
School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
5
Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway;
6
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hormone Laboratory, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; and.
7
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway; bli@nifes.no.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Observational studies have strongly indicated an association between fish consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but data from randomized controlled trials have been inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE:

Our primary outcome in this study was to elucidate the potentials of the 2 main dietary protein sources lean seafood and nonseafood to modulate fasting and postprandial lipids in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that lean-seafood intake would reduce cardiovascular lipid risk factors in healthy subjects more than would the intake of nonseafood protein sources.

DESIGN:

This study was a randomized controlled trial with a crossover design. After 3-wk run-in periods and separated by a 5-wk washout period, 20 healthy subjects (7 men and 13 women) consumed 2 balanced diets that varied in main protein sources (60% of total dietary proteins from lean-seafood or nonseafood sources for 4 wk). At days 1 and 28 of each intervention, fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected before and after consumption, respectively, of test meals with cod or lean beef.

RESULTS:

Relative to the nonseafood intervention, the lean-seafood intervention reduced fasting (relative difference by diets: 0.31 mmol/L; P = 0.03) and postprandial (P = 0.01) serum triacylglycerol concentrations. The lower serum triacylglycerol concentration was associated with reduced fasting triacylglycerol in chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (P = 0.004), reduced fasting VLDL particle size (P = 0.04), and a reduced postprandial concentration of medium-sized VLDL particles (P = 0.02). The lean-seafood intervention prevented the elevated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol in the fasted serum (P = 0.03) and postprandial serum (P = 0.01) that was observed after the nonseafood intervention.

CONCLUSION:

The dietary protein source determines fasting and postprandial lipids in healthy individuals in a manner that may have an effect on the long-term development of cardiovascular disease. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01708681.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; dietary protein; lifestyle; lipoproteins; risk factors

PMID:
26224298
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.115.112086
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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