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J Virol. 2015 Oct;89(20):10319-32. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01380-15. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (HPIV1) Expressing the Fusion Glycoprotein of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) as a Bivalent HPIV1/RSV Vaccine.

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RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA


Live attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) was investigated as a vector to express the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein, to provide a bivalent vaccine against RSV and HPIV1. The RSV F gene was engineered to include HPIV1 transcription signals and inserted individually into three gene locations in each of the two attenuated rHPIV1 backbones. Each backbone contained a single previously described attenuating mutation that was stabilized against deattenuation, specifically, a non-temperature-sensitive deletion mutation involving 6 nucleotides in the overlapping P/C open reading frames (ORFs) (C(Δ170)) or a temperature-sensitive missense mutation in the L ORF (L(Y942A)). The insertion sites in the genome were pre-N (F1), N-P (F2), or P-M (F3) and were identical for both backbones. In vitro, the presence of the F insert reduced the rate of virus replication, but the final titers were the same as the final titer of wild-type (wt) HPIV1. High levels of RSV F expression in cultured cells were observed with rHPIV1-C(Δ170)-F1, -F2, and -F3 and rHPIV1-L(Y942A)-F1. In hamsters, the rHPIV1-C(Δ170)-F1, -F2, and -F3 vectors were moderately restricted in the nasal turbinates, highly restricted in lungs, and genetically stable in vivo. Among the C(Δ170) vectors, the F1 virus was the most immunogenic and protective against wt RSV challenge. The rHPIV1-L(Y942A) vectors were highly restricted in vivo and were not detectably immunogenic or protective, indicative of overattenuation. The C(Δ170)-F1 construct appears to be suitably attenuated and immunogenic for further development as a bivalent intranasal pediatric vaccine.


There are no vaccines for the pediatric respiratory pathogens RSV and HPIV. We are developing live attenuated RSV and HPIV vaccines for use in virus-naive infants. Live attenuated RSV strains in particular are difficult to develop due to their poor growth and physical instability, but these obstacles could be avoided by the use of a vaccine vector. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of live attenuated rHPIV1 vectors expressing the RSV F protein. Two different attenuated rHPIV1 backbones were each engineered to express RSV F from three different gene positions. The rHPIV1-C(Δ170)-F1 vector, bearing an attenuating deletion mutation (C(Δ170)) in the P/C gene and expressing RSV F from the pre-N position, was attenuated, stable, and immunogenic against the RSV F protein and HPIV1 in the hamster model and provided substantial protection against RSV challenge. This study provides a candidate rHPIV1-RSV-F vaccine virus suitable for continued development as a bivalent vaccine against two major childhood pathogens.

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