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Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Feb;43(3):309-17. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13025. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Membrane turnover and receptor trafficking in regenerating axons.

Author information

1
Division of Neuroanatomy, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

Peripheral axonal regeneration requires surface-expanding membrane addition. The continuous incorporation of new membranes into the axolemma allows the pushing force of elongating microtubules to drive axonal growth cones forwards. Hence, a constant supply of membranes and cytoskeletal building blocks is required, often for many weeks. In human peripheral nerves, axonal tips may be more than 1 m away from the neuronal cell body. Therefore, in the initial phase of regeneration, membranes are derived from pre-existing vesicles or synthesised locally. Only later stages of axonal regeneration are supported by membranes and proteins synthesised in neuronal cell bodies, considering that the fastest anterograde transport mechanisms deliver cargo at 20 cm/day. Whereas endocytosis and exocytosis of membrane vesicles are balanced in intact axons, membrane incorporation exceeds membrane retrieval during regeneration to compensate for the loss of membranes distal to the lesion site. Physiological membrane turnover rates will not be established before the completion of target reinnervation. In this review, the current knowledge on membrane traffic in axonal outgrowth is summarised, with a focus on endosomal vesicles as the providers of membranes and carriers of growth factor receptors required for initiating signalling pathways to promote the elongation and branching of regenerating axons in lesioned peripheral nerves.

KEYWORDS:

axon; endosome; lipids; neurite outgrowth; plasmalemma; receptor tyrosine kinase

PMID:
26222895
DOI:
10.1111/ejn.13025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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