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Eur J Clin Invest. 2015 Oct;45(10):1113-26. doi: 10.1111/eci.12510. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk among adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

  • 1Clinical and Experimental Sciences Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
  • 2Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • 3Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • 4Cancer Sciences Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
  • 51st Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Obesity is a risk factor for both vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease. A link between vitamin D status optimisation and improved cardiometabolic profile among adults with obesity could inform public health initiatives.

METHODS:

PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for interventional studies examining the effects of vitamin D status improvement on cardiovascular risk factors (anthropometric measures, lipid profile, blood pressure, glucose tolerance) among nondiabetic adults with obesity.

RESULTS:

Seventeen publications reporting results from 11 different studies were included. Number of participants ranged from 34 to 1179 subjects. Duration was between 6 weeks and 4 years. Vitamin D was administered as a supplement in ten studies (1000 IU daily to 120 000 IU fortnightly). In one study, participants were advised to increase sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D intake. The random and fixed-effects meta-analysis showed that vitamin D significantly increased systolic blood pressure and LDL-C levels. The fixed-effects model also indicated a significant decrease in triglyceride levels, which was not evident using the random-effects model. Caution should be given to these results given the small number of studies used and the high heterogeneity between studies for the two latter outcomes. Additionally, a subset of eligible studies with compatible data presentation was included in the meta-analysis.

CONCLUSION:

This systematic review highlights a paucity of interventional studies examining the effects of vitamin D status improvement on cardiovascular risk factors among otherwise healthy adults with obesity. Large-scale studies at pharmacologically relevant doses and with sufficient duration are warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiometabolic profile; cardiovascular risk; obesity; vitamin D

PMID:
26222607
DOI:
10.1111/eci.12510
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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