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Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 May 15;8(5):6677-81. eCollection 2015.

Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University Riyadh, K.S.A.

Abstract

Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; antibody; cytokines; lymphocytes; thyroglobulin; thyroid peroxidase

PMID:
26221205
PMCID:
PMC4509150

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