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Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015 Sep;121(Pt A):24-41. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.07.003. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue function in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain; Centre for Nutrition Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain.
2
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain; Centre for Nutrition Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain; IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain.
3
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain; Centre for Nutrition Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain; IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address: mjmoreno@unav.es.

Abstract

The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) have been reported to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Growing evidence exits about adipose tissue as a target in mediating the beneficial effects of these marine n-3 PUFAs in adverse metabolic syndrome manifestations. Therefore, in this manuscript we focus in reviewing the current knowledge about effects of marine n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions. This scope includes n-3 PUFAs actions on adipogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as on fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of n-3 PUFAs on adipose tissue glucose uptake and insulin signaling are also summarized. Moreover, the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and AMPK activation in mediating n-3 PUFAs actions on adipose tissue functions are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms underlying the ability of n-3 PUFAs to prevent and/or ameliorate adipose tissue inflammation are also revised, focusing on the role of n-3 PUFAs-derived specialized proresolving lipid mediators such as resolvins, protectins and maresins.

KEYWORDS:

Marine origin omega-3 fatty acids; adipogenesis; adipokines; adipose tissue; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism; metabolic syndrome; obesity; omega-3-derived proresolving lipid mediators

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