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Adv Cancer Res. 2015;128:263-307. doi: 10.1016/bs.acr.2015.05.001. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Control of CD8 T-Cell Infiltration into Tumors by Vasculature and Microenvironment.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Electronic address: vhe@virginia.edu.

Abstract

CD8 T-cells are a critical brake on the initial development of tumors. In established tumors, the presence of CD8 T-cells is correlated with a positive patient prognosis, although immunosuppressive mechanisms limit their effectiveness and they are rarely curative without manipulation. Cancer immunotherapies aim to shift the balance back to dominant antitumor immunity through antibody blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways, vaccination, and adoptive transfer of activated or engineered T-cells. These approaches have yielded striking responses in small subsets of patients with solid tumors, most notably those with melanoma. Importantly, the subset of patients who respond to vaccination or immunosuppression blockade therapies are those with CD8 T-cells present in the tumor prior to initiating therapy. While current adoptive cell therapy approaches can be dramatically effective, they require infusion of extremely large numbers of T-cells, but the number that actually infiltrates the tumor is very small. Thus, poor representation of CD8 T-cells in tumors is a fundamental hurdle to successful immunotherapy, over and above the well-established barrier of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss the factors that determine whether immune cells are present in tumors, with a focus on the representation of cytotoxic CD8 T-cells. We emphasize the critically important role of tumor-associated vasculature as a gateway that enables the active infiltration of both effector and naïve CD8 T-cells that exert antitumor activity. We also discuss strategies to enhance the gateway function and extend the effectiveness of immunotherapies to a broader set of cancer patients.

KEYWORDS:

Checkpoint blockade inhibitor; Chemokines; High endothelial venules; Integrins; Selectins; T-cell trafficking; Tertiary lymphoid structures; Tumor-associated vasculature; Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

PMID:
26216636
PMCID:
PMC4638417
DOI:
10.1016/bs.acr.2015.05.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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