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J Vasc Surg. 2015 Sep;62(3):655-64.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2015.04.391. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Determinants of survival and major amputation after peripheral endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia.

Collaborators (244)

Robinson S, Phillips L, Monk L, Asbury D, McElfresh D, Lantz A, Bergeron M, Caiazzo J, Knutson J, Buchanan S, Bloch P, Healey C, Jorgensen J, Herbert W, Hawkins R, Butzel D, Baker C, Ecker R, Fournier B, Trefethen C, Neelon P, Burkey D, Prato S, Newman K, Mittleider D, Kim P, Poirier M, Roberts B, Napolilano L, Zimmerman A, Pierce C, Moors J, Bolduc M, Kwolek C, LaMuraglia G, Bocklett J, Watkins M, Cavallaro R, Dixon E, Schaub A, McKinnon R, Olson G, Sussman L, Finneran P, Conrad M, Patel V, Brewster D, Tucker S, Shaughnessy L, Clouse WD, Milliken K, Zardas D, Lancaster R, Laverty B, Carvalho S, Cambria R, Wing P, Viola M, Fournier B, Trefethen C, Neelon P, McDevitt R, Bloch P, Healey C, Jorgensen J, Herbert W, Hawkins R, Abbott D, Ahn SH, Alhusami W, Brahmanandam S, Carruthers T, Casey P, Clark I, Custodio O, Doberstein C, Draper S, Dubel G, Forte M, Garcia Toca M, Goncalo B, Haas R, Iannuccilli J, Jay B, Jayaraman M, Kelley NC, Malek J, Mamdani S, Marcaccio E, Markley S, Mazey K, Morrissey P, Murphy T, Nguyen V, Parker J, Patterson R, Prince E, Regnante R, Rule C, Saber W, Saidi R, Sidhom T, Sklar M, Slaiby J, Soares G, Soukas P, Ruby S, Sullivan E, Bagdasarian K, Roland R, Fecteau S, Smith M, Murphy C, Capasso W, Kansal N, Prushik S, Lambert J, Pomposelli F, Lander L, Ayad M, Mathews L, Pin R, Torres D, Fortier L, Viera K, Gillespie D, Santos J, Harmadeep S, Breton C, Medeiros K, Bashir S, Merport M, Sarna D, Rosen R, Furtado J, Keith S, OKelly S, Gray C, Norberg M, Suarez L, Zuniga J, Correira P, Iaccarino N, Farrell K, Jeuvelis K, Dermody M, Sylvia K, Tangney E, Brosnan E, Iafrati M, Estes J, Halin N, Rosen N, OConnell J, Weintraub A, Hudson-Jinks T, Holewinski S, Mackey W, Daly K, Ma H, Simmons A, El-Zaru M, Messina L, Barringhaus K, Paige P, Robinson W, Gulati S, Arous E, Schanzer A, Beschle J, Trychon A, Doucet D, Smons J, Suter D, Aiello F, Baril D, Akhter M, Stanley A, Alef M, Swett P, Adams J, Bertges D, Steinthorsson G, McSorley J, Lesage P, Willard S, Patel R, Smith L, Ellis C, Brahmanandam S, Pye P, Novy J, Menard R, Weinstock M, Decker M, Mattson L, Gorin D, Szal K, Potter D, Donaldson C, Donaldson M, Simosa H, Landa R, Bulsara K, Weiss D, Fugal P, Gates L, Rajaee S, Chin J, Jean M, Sarac T, Ferneini A, Agarwal R, DeNatale R, Thompson C, Hasan F, Mena C, Curtis J, Collins D, Indes J, Muhs B, Aruny J, Pollak J, Remetz M, Sweeney T, Sumpio B, Mojibian H, Reiner E, Arici M, Gusberg R, Forrest J, Coyle B, Cordido R, Tuohy E, Scates J, Ayyagari R, Stilp E, Chaar C, Beckman C, Latic I, Perez-Lozada JC, Jain A, Johnson M, Matouk C.

Author information

University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vt.
Section of Vascular Surgery, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH.
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Mass.
Division of Vascular Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, Vt. Electronic address:



Our objective was to analyze periprocedural and 1-year outcomes of peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI).


We reviewed 1244 patients undergoing 1414 PVIs for CLI (rest pain, 29%; tissue loss, 71%) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) from January 2010 to December 2011. Overall survival (OS), amputation-free survival (AFS), and freedom from major amputation at 1 year were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


The number of arteries treated during each procedure were 1 (49%), 2 (35%), 3 (12%), and ≥4 (5%). Target arterial segments and TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classifications were aortoiliac, 27% (A, 48%; B, 28%; C, 12%; and D, 12%); femoral-popliteal, 48% (A, 29%; B, 34%; C, 20%; and D, 17%); and infrapopliteal, 25% (A, 17%; B, 14%; C, 25%; D, 44%). Technical success was 92%. Complications included access site hematoma (5.0%), occlusion (0.3%), and distal embolization (2.4%). Mortality and major amputation rates were 2.8% and 2.2% at 30 days, respectively. Overall percutaneous or open reintervention rate was 8.0% during the first year. At 1-year, OS, AFS, and freedom from major amputation were 87%, 87%, and 94% for patients with rest pain and 80%, 71%, and 81% for patients with tissue loss. Independent predictors of reduced 1-year OS (C index = .74) included dialysis (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8-5.1; P < .01), emergency procedure (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.2; P = .05), age >80 years (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8; P < .01), not living at home preoperatively (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8; P < .01), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P < .01), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2; P < .01), and chronic β-blocker use (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P = .03), whereas independent preoperative ambulation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9; P = .014) was protective. Independent predictors of major amputation (C index = .69) at 1 year included dialysis (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5; P < .01), tissue loss (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7; P = .02), prior major contralateral amputation (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = .02), non-Caucasian race (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9; P = .045), and male gender (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; P = .03), whereas smoking (HR, .60; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0; P = .042) was protective.


Survival and major amputation after PVI for CLI are associated with different patient characteristics. Dialysis dependence is a common predictor that portends especially poor outcomes. These data may facilitate efforts to improve patient selection and, after further validation, enable risk-adjusted outcome reporting for CLI patients undergoing PVI.

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