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Nurs Outlook. 2015 Sep-Oct;63(5):593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2015.04.006. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Nurse practitioner and physician assistant staffing in the patient-centered medical homes in New York State.

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The George Washington University School of Nursing, Washington, DC. Electronic address:



A cornerstone of patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) is team-based care; however, there is little information about the composition of staff who deliver direct primary care in PCMHs.


The purpose of this study was to examine the number and distribution of primary care physicians (PCPs), nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) in PCMH and non-PCMH practices located in New York State (N = 7,431).


Practice based ratios of primary care NPs and PAs to PCP were calculated and compared by PCMH designations. Designated PCMHs had more NPs and PAs per PCP relative to non-PCMHs. The ratios of NPs to PCPs were almost twice as high in PCMHs compared with non-PCMHs (0.20 and 0.11), and ratios were similarly different for PAs to PCPs (0.16 and 0.09, respectively). The multivariate analyses also support that higher NP and PA staffing was associated with PCMH designation (i.e., there was one additional NP and/or PA for every 25 PCPs).


The growth of PCMHs may require more NPs and PAs to meet the anticipated growth in demand for health care. Policy- and practice-level changes are necessary to use them in the most effective ways.


Nurse practitioners; Patient-centered medical home; Physician assistants; Primary care

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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