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J Insect Physiol. 2016 Jan;84:60-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.07.013. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

Gall-forming root-knot nematodes hijack key plant cellular functions to induce multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells.

Author information

1
INRA, UMR 1355 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France; Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR 7254 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France; CNRS, UMR 7254 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France.
2
INRA, UMR 1355 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France; Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR 7254 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France; CNRS, UMR 7254 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06900 Sophia-Antipolis, France. Electronic address: abad@sophia.inra.fr.

Abstract

Among plant-parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of the Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important genus. RKN are root parasitic worms able to infect nearly all crop species and have a wide geographic distribution. During infection, RKNs establish and maintain an intimate relationship with the host plant. This includes the creation of a specialized nutritional structure composed of multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells, which result from the redifferentiation of vascular root cells. Giant cells constitute the sole source of nutrients for the nematode and are essential for growth and reproduction. Hyperplasia of surrounding root cells leads to the formation of the gall or root-knot, an easily recognized symptom of plant infection by RKNs. Secreted effectors produced in nematode salivary glands and injected into plant cells through a specialized feeding structure called the stylet play a critical role in the formation of giant cells. Here, we describe the complex interactions between RKNs and their host plants. We highlight progress in understanding host plant responses, focusing on how RKNs manipulate key plant processes and functions, including cell cycle, defence, hormones, cellular scaffold, metabolism and transport.

KEYWORDS:

Giant cells; Parasite effectors; Plant cellular targets; Root-knot nematodes; Salivary glands; Stylet secretions

PMID:
26211599
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.07.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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