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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Aug;30 Suppl 4:iv6-16. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv131.

Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review.

Author information

1
ERA-EDTA Registry, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Nephrology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
3
Department of Internal Medicine III/Nephrology, Medical University, Vienna, Austria.
4
Epidemiology and Population Health, LSHTM and UCL Centre for Nephrology, London, UK.
5
Department of Medical Sciences/Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
6
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
7
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University College Cork, Ireland.
8
Unità Opaerativa di Cardiologia ed UTIC, Mercato S. Severino Hospital, Mercato S. Severino, Italy.
9
Nephrology and Dialysis, Columbus-Gemelli University Hospital, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
10
Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, Toulouse, France.
11
Unit of Population Epidemiology, Division of primary care medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
12
Department of Nephrology, St Olav Hospital, Norway/Faculty of Medicine, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
13
Finnish Medicines Agency, Kuopio/National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
14
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
15
Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Ourense, Ourense, Spain.
16
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
17
Department of Nephrology, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag/The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
18
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, CNR-IFC, Clinical Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
19
Research Centre in Epidemiology and Population Health, Inserm Unit 1018, Villejuif, France.
20
Department of Nephrology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
21
Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
22
Departement of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.
23
Department of Nephrology/Graduate School of Medical Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
24
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research, Heidelberg, Germany.
25
Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
26
Department of Nephrology, Setubal Hospital Centre, Setubal, Portugal.
27
Department of Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods.

METHODS:

For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers.

RESULTS:

We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results.

KEYWORDS:

CKD; CKD-EPI equation; MDRD; epidemiology; systematic review

PMID:
26209739
PMCID:
PMC4514069
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfv131
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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