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Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30;229(1-2):214-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.033. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa nutrition and health study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address: takakomiki-tky@umin.ac.jp.
2
Department of Health Administration, Furukawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Abstract

Depression has been linked to the overall diet using both exploratory and pre-defined methods. However, neither of these methods incorporates specific knowledge on nutrient-disease associations. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression and to examine their relations to depressive symptoms. Participants were 2006 Japanese employees aged 19-69 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Diet was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by reduced rank regression with 6 depression-related nutrients as response variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for potential confounders. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, green tea, potatoes, fruits, and small fish with bones and a low intake of rice was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of having depressive symptoms were 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.81) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of dietary score. Results suggest that adherence to a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and typical Japanese foods, including mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, and green tea, is associated with a lower probability of having depressive symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; Dietary pattern; Epidemiology; Japanese; Reduced rank regression

PMID:
26208984
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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