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Environ Sci Nano. 2015 Feb 1;2(1):33-53.

Catalytic Properties and Biomedical Applications of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles.

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Integrated Nanotechnology and Biomedical Sciences Laboratory, Terrence Donnelly Building, University of Toronto, 160 College St., Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada.
Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, US.
Department of Biology, St. Lawrence University, Johnson Hall of Science, 23 Romoda Drive, Canton, NY 13617.
Department of Biology, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma, Italy.
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
Dean A. McGee Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, 608 Stanton L. Young, Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73126.
Burnett School of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816.


Cerium oxide nanoparticles (Nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of Nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of Nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of Nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop Nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

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