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Brain Inj. 2015;29(11):1342-50. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2015.1043947. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

The relationship between self-reported sleep disturbance and polysomnography in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

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a Department of Rehabilitation Medicine , Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , NY , USA .
b Department of Medicine , John Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MD , USA , and.
c The Shepherd Center , Atlanta , GA , USA.



To characterize sleep architecture and self-reported sleep quality, fatigue and daytime sleepiness in individuals with TBI. Possible relationships between sleep architecture and self-reported sleep quality, fatigue and daytime sleepiness were examined.


Forty-four community-dwelling adults with TBI completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). They underwent two nights of in-laboratory nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and hierarchical linear regression was used to analyse the data.


Based on the PSQI cut-off score of ≥ 10, 22 participants were characterized as poor sleepers. Twenty-seven participants met criteria for clinically significant fatigue as measured by the GFI of the MAF. Fourteen participants met criteria for excessive daytime sleepiness as measured by the ESS. Poor sleep quality was associated with poor sleep efficiency, short duration of stage 2 sleep and long duration of rapid eye movement sleep. There was little-to-no association between high levels of fatigue or daytime sleepiness with NPSG sleep parameters.


A high proportion of the sample endorsed poor sleep quality, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Those who reported poorer sleep quality evidenced a shorter proportion of time spent in stage 2 sleep. These findings suggest that disruptions in stage 2 sleep might underlie the symptoms of sleep disturbance experienced following TBI.


Brain injury; fatigue; polysomnography; sleep; sleep initiation maintenance disorders

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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