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J Cell Physiol. 2016 Feb;231(2):288-94. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25098.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Interacts With Inflammation in Human Diseases.

Author information

1
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for normal cell function and homeostasis. Disturbance in the protein folding process in the ER, termed ER stress, leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) that encompasses a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. The UPR can either restore ER homeostasis or activate pro-apoptotic pathways depending on the type of insults, intensity and duration of the stress, and cell types. ER stress and the UPR have recently been linked to inflammation in a variety of human pathologies including autoimmune, infectious, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders. In the cell, ER stress and inflammatory signaling share extensive regulators and effectors in a broad spectrum of biological processes. In spite of different etiologies, the two signaling pathways have been shown to form a vicious cycle in exacerbating cellular dysfunction and causing apoptosis in many cells and tissues. However, the interaction between ER stress and inflammation in many of these diseases remains poorly understood. Further understanding of the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology may enable the development of novel therapies that spontaneously target these pathogenic pathways.

PMID:
26201832
PMCID:
PMC4659393
DOI:
10.1002/jcp.25098
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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